Constituted reason and constituent reason
Behind the variations of the reason there is an ultimate and radical invariant. André Lalande proposes the relevant distinction between constituent reason and constituted reason. The first one is pure 'form', pure requirement of rationality, of coherence and of unity. Pure normativeness that results in principles. As such it is universally and eternally essential in its absolute radicality, necessity, obviousness, universality and totality. The second one is a 'matter' informed by this constituent 'form'. This matter is always multiple, located in space, evolving through time, diversified by multiple human projects, limited in its possibilities of analysis and synthesis, mixed up with multiple not-rational affects, in short, the hard advance of knowledge which is science.
Science is the reason in act and moving. Scandal for the traditional essentialism which counts on absolute contents and final assets. The moving reason discovers that what is absolute in it, it is not what it 'contains', always historically variable, but its pure 'container' possibility, its pure normative 'form'. This pure normative calls for contents. It is always 'form' of a 'matter'. Something like a compromise with the hard advance of the human rational activity which gradually reaches agreement. Agreement of the spirit with itself. Agreement of the spirit with the 'other' reality than itself. Agreement of the spirits with spirits.
The constituent reason is so discrete that it usually does not appear in full light. Leibniz already said of principles they were like the muscles and the tendons. You forget them when you are walking. It is poor compared with the richness of the constituted reason. It is a maidservant. It is tool of any tool. But it is also a queen. Supreme norm of every well considered thinking and of any coherent action. Supreme judge of its capacities. Escort and nevertheless sovereign possibility of a 'no', of a distance, making its irruption in the middle of nature.
All the different 'sciences', at different historical times, in different cultures, through different moments of a same culture, function inside this single and universal constituent space of the logos. Levy-Bruhl believed in a pre-logical state preceding the logical one. In fact logic is of always. Only it functions in a different way.
The reason is carried out historically while removing epistemological and pragmatic obstacles, through the evolution of the material and intellectual 'tool'. Thus scientific rationality is brought up differently. Actually through history we get not-Euclidean geometries, non-Archimedian arithmetic, non-Newtonian physics, non-Laplacian mechanics, not-Cartesian epistemology, and a big lot more. From 'continuous' the intelligibility of matter becomes 'discontinuous'. The space-time reference frames move from absolute to relative. Determinism itself slips on the side of indeterminism. General-purpose logics replace traditional bivalent logics. Contradiction itself becomes rationally fertile through dialectics.
The constituted reason at a given time is only a contingent manifestation of the eternal and universal constituent reason. It appears in the evolutionary plasticity of its historical-cultural forms. It experiments what Bouligand means by the 'decline of the logical-mathematical absolutes'. It knows that an asset of science is provisional according to the evolution of the scientific knowledge itself. The scientific reason changes itself to adapt to conditions of new coherence rising from its own evolution. The reason has not only to transform the raw data of the experiment, it must change itself to adapt to an experiment which changes. The scientific experiment changes in the sense that the solutions brought by science to such or such a problem, at such a given time of history, modifies the data of the problem itself. Science widens thus and modifies its own frameworks continuously. The advance in knowledge coincides with the evolution of the forms and the rational principles.
Through these historical adventures, the reason remains however immutable in its requirements. Whatever the concrete forms of its application, the reason remains imperturbably critical opening and requirement of rationality. As constituent, the reason remains immutably axiological requirement. And it is this actively constituent reason, the reason of any historically constituted reason, which universally governs the matrix space of the human spirit, the space of the logos.
'Science' is not simply made up science, that is the imposing building of the whole of concepts, knowledge, methods, laws and theories. The state of science at a given time of its step is never but one relative and revisable state. Behind made up or constituted sciences is at work the constituent science, the conquest of the scientific reason. A never completed adventure of scientific intelligibility.
|01 Human Paradox A paradoxal animal Human paradox In rupture An animal in crisis An animal 'less' (something) Premature and naked Child of the difference Child of elsewhere||02 Verticality Middle and extremes Tropism to upwards Divine instinct The vertical living Vertical interiority The personal mystery In strict immanence||03 Gaping Depths Gaping deepness Child of gaping Gaping on an other order Gaping of meaning Gaping on the questioning Gaping of matter Gaping of existence In vertical gaping Negative anthropology|
|04 Sacral Difference Sacral dimension The sacral difference Sacral crisis The archaeological sacred Sacral verticality Hiero-tropic space-time||05 Human Environment Human space Closed and open Curvature of space Negative space Space of the sense Including and included Between Alpha and Omega||06 The Matrix of Humanity Child of a culture Human matrix Culture and cultures Master speech Refusing the enclosures|
|07 The Spirit The spiritual reality How define it? Going through DIS-tinction The spirit says no Dialectics||08 Spiritual Breath Breathing Spiritual energy Making sense To signify Sense is through gaping Speech and language Symbol Faith||09 The Sense of Sense The Sense The space of the sense The house of the sense Including and included sense Confinement Master and possessor of sense|
|10 The Reason Science Constituted and constituent Scientific dialectics Bubble Between Structure and sense||11 The Meaning Demiurge of the significances Through To run here and there Mechanism Trough articulation Articulable matter||12 Systems Analysis Systemics The system Systemic operation Energy Tanks|
|13 Oïkology Impossible closing Systemic totality The house of the spirit Ecology We sinned||14 Exodus Spiritual adventure Out of safety measures Out of the cave Logos in exodus||15 Through Difference Difference Starting from difference Crossing the duality A logic of crossing Chance|
|16 Dialectics Going through 'no' Fundamental dynamics Dia-logos The fourth dimension Passover dialectics||17 Alliance Broken Alliance Rupture of the bond The prodigal son Atheism State of grace||18 History Emergence of History Impossible totalizing Trans-historic verticality The sense in exodus Between Alpha and Omega|
|19 Fertile Confrontation Singular adventure Dialectical gestation Antithesis Two revolutions Exponents A long gestation Explosiveness||20 Progress What is progress? Source of The progress Exponential acceleration The tool of progrès Why it isn't working Wedged exponential growth Progressive illusion||21 Schizoid Tautological speech Idealism Master and possessor Flirt with nothingness God driven out Without the Father Without recourse Psychosis|
|22 The Other One Arising The other one Exposed To tell the other one||23 Adventurers Components and exponents Adventurers of eschatology Today||24 Through Scandal Gaping mystery of evil Trough distance Congenital evil Entropy in the human hearth|
|25 Agape Gaping of Eros Captive desire Eros and Agape Going down Defeated entropy||26 God in You Tropism for Agape Bottomless bottom Cleaning the sources Let you fall You fall into God||Autor|